Characteristics of Kingdom Monera | Free Biology Notes

Characteristics of Kingdom Monera

In this article we will discuss about characteristics of kingdom monera

Characteristics of Kingdom Monera

  • Most Monera are single-celled organisms, like bacteria and archaea.
  • Members of the Kingdom Monera can be found almost anywhere. They also live in harsh environments such as hot springs, deserts, snow, and deep seas.
  • Their body structure is very simple, but they are complex in behavior and show metabolic diversity.
  • The bacterial cell reveals three layers: capsule, cell wall, and cytoplasm.
  • A thick layer of glycocalyx bound tightly to the cell wall is called a capsule, and this cell wall protects from desiccation and antibiotics.
  • The cell wall is made up of non-cellulosic material called peptidoglycan.
  • Genetic material is naked DNA, known as nucleoid.
  • Histones, nuclear envelope, nucleoplasm, nucleolus, and chromatin are absent.
  • All membrane-bound organelles are absent.
  • Contains 70s type of ribosomes
  • Since mitochondria are absent, respiratory enzymes are associated with the plasma membrane.
  • Some bacteria have extrachromosomal DNA molecules that are called Plasmids.
  • Some Monera are autotrophs, producing their food through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis, while others are heterotrophs, relying on organic matter for nutrition.
  • They reproduce asexually through binary fission, where a cell divides into two identical cells, ensuring rapid population growth.

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Diversity in the living world Notes


The kingdom Monera include archaebacteria and eubacteria, which are tiny single-celled organisms without a nucleus.

The main criteria for the classification of the kingdom Monera and Protista are the presence and absence of a defined nucleus. Monerans do not have a true nucleus whereas protists have true nuclei. Organisms that do not contain a nucleus are called prokaryotes classified in a group called Monera and organisms which contain a nucleus are called prokaryotes classified in Protista.

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