Hardy & Weinberg Principle Note | Evolution Class 12 Notes

In this article we will discuss about Hardy & Weinberg Principle

  • This law was proposed by Hardy & Weinberg in 1908
  • Allele and genotype frequencies in a population will remain constant from generation to generation. In absence of evolutionary influences
  • When gene frequency remain constant generation and generation the population is called genetic equilibrium or hardy Weinberg equilibrium
  • The population in genetic equilibrium, the rate of evolution is zero
  • Evolution occur only when hardy Weinberg equilibrium is altered

Conditions of the Hardy-Weinberg population are:

  • The population must be large.
  • Mating must be random, with no selection for certain genotypes.
  • There must be no emigration or immigration.
  • There may be no mutations.
  • There may be no incestuous mating.

Application of hardy and weinberg

  • Hardy Weinberg law is represented by simple formula
  • Formula 1: P+q=1
    • p= Frequency of dominant allele
    • q= Frequency of recessive allele
  • This formula is used to find out the frequency of dominant allele and recessive allele in a population
  • Formula 2: p2+2pq+q2=1
    • Frequency of dominant homozygous
    • Frequency of heterozygous
    • Frequency of recessive homozygous
  • Frequency of heterozygous and homozygous in a population can be calculated by another Hardy Weinberg formula

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