Speciation and its types | Evolution Class 12 Notes

In this article we will discuss about Speciation and its types:- Divergent speciation
and Transformation speciation

  • Formation of new species is called speciation
  • New species are formed in Variety of ways
  • Speciation are of two types
    1. Divergent speciation
    2. Transformation speciation


  • New species are formed from an ancestor species
  • Divergent speciations are of two types

i) Allopatric speciation

  • Two populations of same species become isolated from each other due to geographic changes
  • Evolution of allopatric population into separate species is called allopatric speciation
  • It is speciation in different place

ii) Sympatric speciation

  • Evolution of a new species from a surviving ancestral species while both continue to inhabit the same geographic region.
  • It is speciation in same place

Speciation and its types


  • Ancestor species changes into a new species
  • Transformation speciation are of two types

i) Phyletic speciation

  • Ancestor species changes into new species
  • It is gradual changes

ii) Quantum speciation

  • Suddenly major changes appears in ancestor species
  • Ancestor immediately changed into new species
  • No connective links are present in this type of speciation
  • It is caused by major mutation

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